The Pelton turbine is part of the free-jet resp. impulse turbines which convert the pressure energy of water into kinetic energy entirely in the control device. Pelton turbines are used at large heads and relatively low water flows. The turbine power is adjusted by means of the nozzle cross-section. In practice, Pelton turbines are used for driving synchronous generators, where they run at constant speed. The Pelton turbine HM 450.01 is an accessory for the HM 450C trainer. The experimental unit consists of the Pelton wheel, a needle nozzle used as control device, a band brake for loading the turbine and a housing with a transparent front panel. The transparent cover enables you to observe the water flow, the wheel and the nozzle during operation. You can change the nozzle cross-section and thus the flow rate by adjusting the nozzle needle.
The pressure at the turbine inlet is recorded with a pressure sensor. A force sensor and a speed sensor are attached to the band brake. Thus, the mechanical power output of the turbine can be determined. Speed, torque and pressure are displayed on the switch cabinet of HM 450C and processed further in the software. Water supply and flow rate measurement are provided by HM 450C.
The well-structured instructional material sets out the fundamentals and provides a step-by-step guide through the experiments.
Learning Objectives / Experiments
- determination of mechanical output - determination of efficiency - recording of characteristic curves - investigation of the influence of the nozzle cross-
section on the power output
* Pelton turbine with visible operating area1 * Closed water circuit and data processing software
 recording the curves of a Pelton turbine and investigating the influence of the nozzle cross-section  transparent front panel for observing the operating area  loading the turbine by use of an air-cooled band brake  adjustable nozzle needle for setting different nozzle cross-sections  non-contact speed measurement at the turbine shaft and force sensor at the brake for measuring the torque  force sensor at the turbine inlet  speed, torque and pressure displayed on the switch cabinet of HM 450C  water supply, flow rate measurement and data processing software via HM 450C
Turbine - output: approx. 350W at 1000min-1, 150L/min, H=20m - max. speed: 1500min-1 - impeller 14 vanes medium diameter: 165mm